Plant/part : Shrub/fruit (source: singapore, india and malaysia)
Latin name : Piper nigrum
Family : Piperaceae
Note : Middle
Extraction : Distillation
Aroma: Very sharp and spicy.
Properties: Analgesic, antiemetic, antiseptic, antispasdmodic, aphrodisiac, cardiac, carminative, detoxicant, digestive, diuretic tebrifuge, laxative, rubefacient, stimulant, stomachic, tonic.
Fortifying effect on the stomach, increases flow of saliva and stimulates appetite. Expels wind, quells vomiting and encourages peristalsis. Useful in bowel problems generally as it restores tone to colon muscles. Promotes urine and stimulates the kidneys. Generally expels toxins. Gives tone to skeletal muscles. Dilation of local blood vessels makes it useful for muscular aches and pains, tired and aching limbs and muscular stiffness. Good oil to use before excessive exertion like sport. Also helpful with rheumatoid arthritis and temporary paralysis of the limbs.
Chemical constituents: Eugenol, myrisricin, safrole (phenol), bisabolene, camphene, farnesene, limonene, myrcene, phellandrene, pinene, sabinene, selinene. Thujene (terpenes), caryophyllene,
Precautions: Too much too often may over stimulate the kidneys. Possibility of skin irritation.
Blends : Basil, bergamot, cypress, frankincense, geranium, grapefruit, lemon, palmarosa, rosemary, sandalwood, ylang ylang.